Cybersecurity Issues and Challenges: A view

Santosh Kumar Majhi


The information and communications technology (ICT) industry has evolved greatly over the last half century. The technology is ubiquitous and increasingly integral to almost every facet of modern society. ICT devices and components are generally interdependent, and disruption of one may affect many others. Over the past several years, experts and policy makers have expressed increasing concerns about protecting ICT systems from cyberattacks, which many experts expect to increase in frequency and severity over the next several years.
The act of protecting ICT systems and their contents has come to be known as cybersecurity. A broad and arguably somewhat fuzzy concept, cybersecurity can be a useful term but tends to defy precise definition. It is also sometimes inappropriately conflated with other concepts such as privacy, information sharing, intelligence gathering, and surveillance. However, cybersecurity can be an important tool in protecting privacy and preventing unauthorized surveillance, and information sharing and intelligence gathering can be useful tools for effecting cybersecurity.
The management of risk to information systems is considered fundamental to effective cybersecurity. The risks associated with any attack depend on three factors: threats (who is attacking), vulnerabilities (how they are attacking), and impacts (what the attack does). Most cyberattacks have limited impacts, but a successful attack on some components of critical infrastructure (CI)—most of which is held by the private sector—could have significant effects on national security, the economy, and the livelihood and safety of individual citizens. Reducing such risks usually involves removing threat sources, addressing vulnerabilities, and lessening impacts.
The government role in cybersecurity involves both securing government systems and assisting in protecting non- government systems. Under current law, all government department have cybersecurity responsibilities relating to their own systems, and many have sector-specific responsibilities for CI. On average, government departments spend more than 5% of their annual ICT budgets on cybersecurity.
However, in the context of cybersecurity prevention it needs more attention to resolve difficult long-term challenges relating to design, incentives, consensus, and environment. In this paper the Management of Cybersecurity Risks, government role and Long-Term Challenges are discussed.

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